Inherent ability = difficulty * accomplishment. Reply

All of Physics is this “Inherent ability = difficulty * accomplishment”. Thats just intuitive but can easily be seen to correspond mathematically with the Principle of least action.

First the edifice: whats the problem? The problem is given you move in straight line when every direction is same around you, which direction will you chose? While you are waiting for a good answer from astrologers intelligent people already give a good hint. Think you have some inherent ability which is fixed.

fixed: which changes only if estimated wrong.

That inherent ability is actually action. Accomplishments are adjusted for difficulties, you waded through a swamp 5 meters you would have accomplished in sand 8 meters with that given inherent ability called action. Because action is abstract we have been sticking to time and path-length, but they are not as fundamental, they are merely specifics. More…


Aberrations; a lecture in Optics. 1

Optical systems are studied under two assumptions

object point does not lie far away from the axis of the optical system.

rays taking part in image formation make a small angle with the axis of the optical system.

The domain of optics where above two assumptions are valid is called as Paraxial optics. Paraxial systems are highly idealized and in reality do not perfectly represent the situation. The consequential errors in image reconstruction are known as aberrations.
The paraxial assumption can be represented by truncating at the first term of the polynomial expansion of the sin function by the Maclaurin series. More…


A c++ code for calculating pi value. Reply

Finally I am successful in calculating pi value — less than 0.3% error, by using random number generation. Although my computer needs some fixation on its compiler or path definition etc, there are very good online compilers which helps in testing and running c++ codes: try the given link.

Computing the value of pi using std::rand()
Enter number of trials: 10000
Enter number of random (x,y) points per trial: 10
pi = 3.14376 +- 0.00519107
average – exact = 0.00216735
CPU time = 0.004027 secs

Here is the code I found by searching a good deal on the web. Yes I did tinker around but only because my own compiler (Turbo C++ on windows 10, 64 bits) was throwing some exceptions on the included headers.

using namespace std;

double pi_estimate(const unsigned long points) More…

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Aurora Borealis or Northern Lights at Ireland.

The Maxwell’s Equations, from nature to instruments. Reply

The beauty of Maxwell’s equations can be seen in how it helps us understand nature as well as instruments, at the same time. Medical devices are simply an advanced understanding that began with understanding electromagnetic waves through Maxwell’s equations.

Each of the following 4 equations has a different name, by which we call’em, but together they are called as the Maxwell’s equations. Together they constitute what I am inspired to say; the golden equations of Physics. If we do some easy tricks they will be converted into whats called as the Wave Equations (of motion) ! Yes, they describe the wave behavior “fully”.

— By that I don’t mean sound waves, but any sort of waves that move at the speed of light. Sound waves are ordinary pressure oscillations, that travel much slower than even rockets.
The 4 equations therefore describe how electromagnetic waves are created and broadcast. Hence TV radio and satellite communication were understood because these 4 equations were understood.

First two are time-independent or static equations.

The first equation is known as Gauss’s law of electrostatics and says “Electric fields (E), are a result of sources of electrostatic charge”.

The 2nd equation is analogous and called as Gauss’s law of static magnetic field. But it says “apparently there are no sources of magneto-static charge or single magnetic pole from which the magnetic field B is created”.

Then how are magnetic fields created? We needed to know further to find the answer. Lets look at the 3rd and 4th equations. More…

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Atoms with nuclei and electrons. Nucleus has nucleons in it which are two types, protons and neutryons. The protons and neutrons are Baryons with each having two different combination of 3 quarks (uud and udd)

Two new Baryons at LHC. Reply

Two new Baryons at LHC.

Two new Baryons at LHCb.
LHCb, the famed experiment at CERN, Switzerland found a year ago two new Baryons. These are important steps in testing the validity of our state of the art understanding of current model of the Physical Universe, mostly in considering the “particle constituents” of the matter around us, and known by the name Standard Model — of Particle Physics.

Atoms with nuclei and electrons. Nucleus has nucleons in it which are two types, protons and neutrons. The protons and neutrons are Baryons with each having two different combination of 3 quarks — uud and udd.

Protons and Neutrons as Baryons, that is an eternal bond of 3 quarks. uud and udd. Note that the spring is the gluon. Much like a spring transmits a mechanical force these gluons have an assigned duty to transfer the strong nuclear forces from one participant to the other.

1. First off it does so by colliding protons with protons at gigantic speeds, at the speed of light. So these protons are 1000 times more energetic than their own mass. If you are 60 kg, your energy is 600 Joule, if you move freely a distance of 1 meter, consider yourself to be thrown so fast that you have 1000 times that energy. Both examples are approximately true.

2. Protons are called Baryons. Anything with 3 quarks in them, as we know them today are called as Baryon. The 3 quarks will never separate into single relationship status. Its a triangular love, in which each partner has their share of love meted out. Sorry particles are decidedly promiscuous. 😉 And never break their relations as long as they are bonded this way.

3. These new baryons — 3 quarks in eternal bonding, are about 6 times heavier than proton. SInce protons were bombarded onto each other madly, with energies that are 1000 times bigger than their own mass, the possibility of heavier particles such as these new baryons materialized. So the protons did not break in a way quarks will cry out “I am single again” but rather go into relationships with other quarks and form heavier relationships. More…

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Time travel explanation, the amateur way. Reply

One summer 2011 evening, in the courtyard of our house, I got into the act of recording myself with my webcam, and I find that I am explaining the concept of, Time Travel — verbatim, with no prior writings.

Get yourself lost. Somewhere. So that I don’t see you.

I don’t care, I am supposed to drink this sprite or not.

But the fact is; I am wrong. well that just that one sip that’s just reminded me, something, something aesthetic something exotic in the taste of the drink.

That’s right. I just drink a lot, so I would know.

It corresponds to the past. This is time travel.

Time travel can happen in your memory, cos in quantum mechanics, where it concerns very small objects concern very small object, time travel has some meaning.

Time travel doesn’t have a meaning in classical physics, you never see the arrow of time getting reversed for the classically sized and scaled, objects, these objects never go back in time, you never see that, you never see something reversing, it goes that way and it comes back exactly the same way, not even for a single object, so this whole thing, this whole jamboree o’ objects, they can never all, at the same time, go back in the arrow of time, to produce what is called a reversal in time, reversal in motion.

You never see that in classical world. But in the quantum mechanical world, this has certain meaning. Certain meanings.

What is it?

The, quantum mechanical sized objects, particles, small particles, photons, electrons, protons, atoms, I am not even thinking of atoms, but very tiny particles, very small particles, when they are exchanging the information, their 4-vector information, their momenta, energy, this and that, what is happening there?

Particle comes and meets. You think they are meeting like, in classical object, exchanging some information, then going back and forth, then just come back and meet again? Hey .. “time travel, we are meeting once again”.

I did that gesture, in a classical way, but not in a quantum mechanical way.

In a quantum mechanical way, this is not happening, this is just one component, and no component is complete, no path is complete, no amplitude is complete, its a mix of a very different kind, in a very different type of processes, very … well, multiple processes, multiple amplitudes, multiple things happening all at the same time, it does not make sense that there is one single electron and its exchanging information with that photon or proton … this and that …

It was starting the whole thing as a whole. More…