cplusplus

A c++ code for calculating pi value. Reply

Finally I am successful in calculating pi value — less than 0.3% error, by using random number generation. Although my computer needs some fixation on its compiler or path definition etc, there are very good online compilers which helps in testing and running c++ codes: try the given link.

OUTPUT
Computing the value of pi using std::rand()
Enter number of trials: 10000
Enter number of random (x,y) points per trial: 10
pi = 3.14376 +- 0.00519107
average – exact = 0.00216735
CPU time = 0.004027 secs

Here is the code I found by searching a good deal on the web. Yes I did tinker around but only because my own compiler (Turbo C++ on windows 10, 64 bits) was throwing some exceptions on the included headers.

#include
#include
#include
#include
//#include
using namespace std;

double pi_estimate(const unsigned long points) More…

photo credit; ytimg.com

Time travel explanation, the amateur way. Reply

One summer 2011 evening, in the courtyard of our house, I got into the act of recording myself with my webcam, and I find that I am explaining the concept of, Time Travel — verbatim, with no prior writings.

Get yourself lost. Somewhere. So that I don’t see you.

I don’t care, I am supposed to drink this sprite or not.

But the fact is; I am wrong. well that just that one sip that’s just reminded me, something, something aesthetic something exotic in the taste of the drink.

That’s right. I just drink a lot, so I would know.

It corresponds to the past. This is time travel.

Time travel can happen in your memory, cos in quantum mechanics, where it concerns very small objects concern very small object, time travel has some meaning.

Time travel doesn’t have a meaning in classical physics, you never see the arrow of time getting reversed for the classically sized and scaled, objects, these objects never go back in time, you never see that, you never see something reversing, it goes that way and it comes back exactly the same way, not even for a single object, so this whole thing, this whole jamboree o’ objects, they can never all, at the same time, go back in the arrow of time, to produce what is called a reversal in time, reversal in motion.

You never see that in classical world. But in the quantum mechanical world, this has certain meaning. Certain meanings.

What is it?

The, quantum mechanical sized objects, particles, small particles, photons, electrons, protons, atoms, I am not even thinking of atoms, but very tiny particles, very small particles, when they are exchanging the information, their 4-vector information, their momenta, energy, this and that, what is happening there?

Particle comes and meets. You think they are meeting like, in classical object, exchanging some information, then going back and forth, then just come back and meet again? Hey .. “time travel, we are meeting once again”.

I did that gesture, in a classical way, but not in a quantum mechanical way.

In a quantum mechanical way, this is not happening, this is just one component, and no component is complete, no path is complete, no amplitude is complete, its a mix of a very different kind, in a very different type of processes, very … well, multiple processes, multiple amplitudes, multiple things happening all at the same time, it does not make sense that there is one single electron and its exchanging information with that photon or proton … this and that …

It was starting the whole thing as a whole. More…

There is only one physical favor the Universe did on life. Reply

But all of them are not stable. We have made great strides in understanding them collectively called as standard model of particle physics which involves electroweak and strong interactions. Its a weird mess of beautiful list of particles and their behavior toward each other. Sometimes there is symmetry breaking sometimes there is symmetry and sometimes there is confinement.

What such an astounding theory backed by the most swashbuckling experimental measurements have meant is there are only countable number of stable particles.

Let’s begin counting out of 100s electron, proton, photon and neutrinos … That’s it. End counting.

It explains almost everything we see around us. The matter. If we are to see dark matter we would be explaining that as well. But hold your breath we haven’t seen that so far.

Since almost everything we have seen are so unstable we wouldn’t be created.

But the very few stable particles made atoms possible and the atoms made life possible.

Here is how the atom is possible.

The neutron guy is not very happy as its not stable. It met proton on a blind date and they got More…

The quality of a scientific paper … A casual reposition. Reply

The quality of a scientific paper are not ZERO if citation is zero. Perhaps we need to define two parameters, quality and significance of scientific communication. Quality; a well done research in the best traditions and methods available. Significance; the outreach of the paper to bring effect into others work and others understanding toward the subject matter.

While there will always be a downside to both parameters, citation reflects the significance (and quality as much as it correlated to significance) of a paper. More…

3 myths of physics, especially in textbooks. 3

2. Last year in a text book in Indian High School curriculum, I spotted and corrected with my students, the following:

Myth; there are only 3 quarks that have been detected or FOUND/confirmed so far, in nature.

Its based on a knowledge that was true more than 3 decades ago. All quarks, 6 of them, have been confirmed as hypothesized, the last of them was confirmed 2 decades ago. So there is really no reason why these facts should have been omitted from the text books that are updated every few years as such. Who are our experts?

3. During my freelance research, I have pointed out the following fact within last 3 or 2 years. A recurring myth in very advance texts of physics, concurrently followed in major and wide number of universities around the world, some of the finest texts in the field of particle physics and widely believed to be excellent, which they are nonetheless.

Myth; (particle life time and range of forces) A (force carrier) particle is long range if its mass is zero. Lifetime is the uncertainty that gives rise to an energy which is equivalenced through Einstein’s mass-energy relation and mass being zero, we have an infinite range as range is inversely proportional.

Fact; This is murky waters. Its a manipulation of sorts. Experimentally life times are quite arbitrary, while mass is supposedly fixed. Neutrino has a mean-life from 15 seconds to 10 billion seconds in order of magnitude .. I have hypothesized that’s possible, because it has such a high energy, and given it can’t lose this energy via any possible processes, it must live that long. More…

Why is the helicity for a mass-less particle Lorentz invariant? Reply

Result; now that photons are mass-less, their energy, momentum, speed, etc are no more variables, in the sense of arbitrariness. They are constants, taking only a few values, but constant in a given situation. But other particles have these properties; arbitrary. So electrons energy and momentum are not fixed, but arbitrary.

But as long as we are considering only elementary particles (that is, we are in a Quantum Zone) eg, electrons, protons, photons, and not nutmegs, soccer balls and airplanes and satellites there is another quantity that is of important consequence that is constant. Spin; whether a mass-less particle or not, spin has the same magnitude for them. that is spin is same for photon, its always 1. Spin for an electron is always 1/2. Spin for proton is always 1/2. Its for this reason photon is called a Boson**. Any thing with spin, 0, 1, 2, etc will be a Boson. Anything with spin 1/2, 3/2 etc will be called Fermion. More…