Gravitational Anomaly.

Gravitational Anomaly: (asked by a student for very simple explanation)

Basically it means the new laws of physics known as Quantum Mechanics invalidates the sanctity of nature’s principles or laws (that is QM brings exceptions to the validity of the physical laws of nature itself)

Let us discuss this in simpler ideas from the basics only.

Remember the most basic physics, that of principle of conservation of energy and the principle of conservation of (linear) momentum.

In the more rigorous formalism of physics these two principles emanate (that is derivable) from two ideas of symmetry. In-fact every conservation principle of physics are manifestations of a corresponding principle of symmetry and vice-a-versa (also every symmetry must correspond to a conservation law). This general idea of connection between conservation laws and symmetry is collectively known as Noether’s theorem and is a central underpinning in all of today’s conceptual physics.

LIGO in India? You must be kidding …

I was pleasantly surprised that this experiment is slated to come up in India, yes, with a whopping 250 million dollars investment into science in India is perhaps the only 2nd instance of massive science euphoria.

And they are both directly or immediately so, in my field of research, although the first one INO isn’t seeming to be coming of age, while collaborations and Physics and engineering as such have been extensively laid out in the ground, the lab the much coveted international particle physics lab that is, hasn’t come.

(Surprise me, if work has already begun in Madurai, we have been struck by paranoia of environment so much that the elephants have the right of way more than the most innocuous science commies out there, pardon me, that’s a pun, no disrespect to elephants, no offense to commies.)

What happens when squirrels do not move.

Stationary state and squirrels !

Okay so the squirrel isn’t moving around so much, giving a fuzzy image. We can call the instant during which the squirrel wasn’t moving akin to a “gross” stationary state.

But why is the railing of window fuzzy? It isn’t moving !

Diffraction.

Due to diffraction enough light is coming from the other side of the iron bar, to enable us to see whats there. That quadrangle is diffracting the light. But why its fuzzy?

Diffraction is by its own very nature even though purely classical in many sense, fuzzy towards energy if time window is small. [due to energy vs time uncertainty]

That is, full energy cycle isn’t available, because a small time window is chosen. If you time-lapse the photograph, diffraction will become quite insignificant. Although it might still be there depending on details.

Waves, particles and Einstein !

Waves are something that have no mass and move at the maximum speed, mass m = 0. speed c = 1. So whats their momentum? p = m.v = 0? Right?

No. For pure waves; momentum does not come from mass. It comes only from motion.

(pure wave; they do not have mass)

For matter waves, on the other hand, momentum comes in two ways, mass as well as motion.

(impure, now they have mass)

Albert Einstein recognized this fact and derived his relation; $latex E = \sqrt {(pc)^2+(mc^2)^2}$

This relation is called as Einstein’s relativistic equation, also Einstein’s mass-energy relation. But more appropriately mass-energy-momentum relation.

Let us consider E as the hypotenuse, p and m; as base or perpendicular as is your choice.

triangle_copyThen $latex E = \sqrt {(pc)^2+(mc^2)^2}$ is Pythagoras Theorem; when p is momentum and m is mass.

For pure waves such as photon … the quanta of light, m = 0.

Hence the Pythagorean Triangle is now one, where the mass side is arbitrary small. Thus E = p.

What happens when cows move rapidly !

Cows not moving and moving fast. How does this difference impact the image in a modern digital camera?

Honestly I haven’t checked it with old day manual camera neither do I remember what impact motion brings into mages taken by such, eg does anyone remember when he/she took a picture of a friend standing in a platform and a train was coming, what happened to the image due to such motion?

Do you see where the fuzziness coming from, in the pictures, where the cows are moving?

Its coming from the relative motion between “objects being imaged” (cows and grass etc) and equipment of imaging (camera). This fuzziness is quite small when they are both still (the object and camera, wrt each other).

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