Topics covered in this lecture

A. structure of the nucleus

B. properties of the nucleus

A. structure of the nucleus

Every atom consists of a dense positive central core of mass, known as nucleus. Its size is much smaller compared to the size of the atom, nut nonetheless it contains almost all of the mass of the atom.

The nucleus is made of only neutrons and protons. -- These are collectively known as nucleons.

Nucleons are not the smallest constituents of matter. -- In-fact nucleons are made of different combinations of 3 quarks, of which only two of the quarks can be of the same type.

Combinations of 3 quarks which form into a bound state of material system are known as baryons. We will study about baryons in the last part of this lecture series.

Thus baryons are a naturally occurring collective matter, built from 3 quarks, where the 3 quarks interact among each other, but can't escape this bound state of formation, even under the impact of tremendous force.

This fact is known as asymptotic freedom, such freedom is only a dream for them, and for us. This is possible in principle, when the distance of separation between them can be made infinite, in order to weaken the existing attractive force between them, to zero.

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]]>Conductors, semiconductors and holes as charge carriers

Topics covered in this lecture

A. Conductors

B. Semiconductors

C. Holes

D. Intrinsic semiconductors

Conductors: A conductor is the name of a material which is a good conductor of electricity. Copper ( Cu ), Silver ( Ag ) and Gold ( Au ) are examples of materials which are good conductors of electricity, in other words they are known as conductors.

A natural question arises as to why copper is a good conductor of electricity. Such a fact can be understood from its electronic configuration.

Electronic configurations are a good way to understand the physical as well as chemical properties of materials. A great deal of our modern understanding of materials and their properties are based on the detailed electronic configuration facts of the same.

The copper has 29 electrons in its atom. That means it has an equal number of protons. It has two isotopes, one has 34 and the other has 36 neutrons. Isotopes are the same chemical element having 2 or more than 2 different types of nuclei, due to difference in the number of neutrons. As a whole copper atom is electrically neutral.

The 29 electrons are distributed into shells or orbits. Consequently the first orbit has 2, 2nd orbit has 8 and 3rd orbit has 18 electrons. There is only 1 electron in the outermost orbit of the copper atom.

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I am trying to fix the issues. -- Its due to 3rd party rendering issues, like Java script and CSS styling codes.

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a. Types and classes of crystals,

b. Symmetry operations in crystals

In this lecture we will follow through our basic knowledge gained in the last lecture. -- lecture -- I, II, and shed light on the most interesting properties of crystal lattices, viz. their symmetry properties. Based on their properties we will classify them into various types and classes.

...

ii. Lattices satisfy additional symmetry operations. But due to the constraint of translational symmetry the total number of symmetry operations that the lattices can satisfy is reduced to a minimum.

iii. This means in 2-dimensional lattice constructs we have only 5 types of lattices which satisfy additional symmetry operations. In 3-dimensional geometry there are a total of 14 classes of lattices.

iv. Thus in 3-dimensional lattices the 14 classes of Bravais lattices are categorized into 7 types or systems of fundamental lattices.

v. The extra symmetry operations are

various rotations,

inversion about a space point and

reflection about a plane passing through a lattice point or

their possible combinations.

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a. Helmholtz theorem -- in electrodynamics

b. Gauge transformation -- of scalar and vector potential in electrodynamics

c. Coulomb and Lorentz gauge

All electromagnetic theory lectures of this series, will be found here (https://mdashf.org/category/electromagnetic-theory/)

In our previous lecture -- lecture -- III, we discussed in quite detail, the problem of electrostatics and magneto-statics.

We understood how deeply the Helmholtz theorems formulate the entire question of these two branches of electromagnetic phenomena.

But static problems are not sufficient for any rigorous treatment of the electromagnetic theory.

We promised in that lecture to study how Helmholtz theorems lend their magical power to understand the most general nature of electromagnetic phenomena.

In this lecture we will study precisely the applicability of Helmholtz theorems to the problem of electrodynamics and we will see how it leads to a great deal of success in advancing the ability to solve electromagnetic problems of a great variety.

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