Science

The Maxwell’s equations, from nature to instruments.

The beauty of Maxwell’s equations can be seen in how it helps us understand nature as well as instruments, at the same time. Medical devices are simply an advanced understanding that began with understanding electromagnetic waves through Maxwell’s equations.

Each of the following 4 equations has a different name, by which we call’em, but together they are called as the Maxwell’s equations. Together they constitute what I am inspired to say; the golden equations of Physics. If we do some easy tricks they will be converted into whats called as the Wave Equations (of motion) ! Yes, they describe the wave behavior “fully”. — By waves I don’t mean sound waves, but any sort of waves that move at the speed of light. Sound waves are ordinary pressure oscillations, that travel much slower than even rockets.

The 4 equations therefore describe how electromagnetic waves are created and broadcast. Hence TV radio and satellite communication were understood because these 4 equations were understood.

First two are time-independent or static equations.

Gauss law of electrostatics 
The first equation is known as Gauss law of electrostatics, it says “Electric fields (E) are a result of sources of electrostatic charges”.
Gauss law of magnetostatics
The second equation is known as Gauss law of static magnetic field ( or magnetostatic field ) it says “apparently there are no sources of magneto-static charge or single magnetic pole from which the magnetic field B is created”.
Then how are magnetic fields created? We needed to know further to find the answer. Lets look at the 3rd and 4th equations.

The last two equations are time-dependent, time varying or dynamic equations. Which is why sometimes we see electro and magneto statics and some times we see electrodynamics and magneto-dynamics or simply electrodynamics, in nomenclature of these fields of studies.

Ampere’s circuital law
The 3rd equation is called as Ampere’s circuital law. Its also whats known as Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction and Lenz’s law. It says changing magnetic fields can produce electric fields. Not only electrostatic charge but changing magnetic fields as well produce electric fields. Although we don’t know yet how the magnetic fields were produced.
Modified Ampere Circuital law
The last equation is called as Modified Ampere Circuital law  or Ampere-Maxwell law.This provides the remaining links in the understanding of Electromagnetic field’s creation and motion. It says magnetic fields are produced by actual electric currents (I) that is; change of electrostatic charges over time produces magnetic fields. Magnetic fields are also produced by changing electrostatic fields, this type of pseudo current is called as Displacement current.

Star Motion, an interesting star concept.

To budding astronomers.

A difference between true velocity and proper velocity. Proper velocity (proper motion) is the motion of a star apparent to the center-of-mass of the solar system. That is, how fast any object (a star) is moving wrt the sun’s position. (in terms of its center-of-mass)

So if a star is close to sun, its true velocity might be as much as it is, but proper velocity can be larger. Proper velocities are often larger when stars are closer, an useful fact in Astronomy.

(How proper velocity is eg useful in Astronomy, should be a good essay type question in Indian University exams, in the course of astronomy, but rather its more useful to remove essay type questions from Exams of University and such essay should be written by students as blogs, and the best blogs can be rewarded, Change should be brought to our education system by innovative thinking and not just by lecturing on outdated spiritual discourses)

Stars and Fate.

Astrology is the blind belief that stars change our fate — pun; like the blind belief wives change our personality. This is where Physics becomes a paraphernalia of whim, cultivated over the ages, to bring solace in seeking ignorance as a means of existential glory.

I just checked some scientific terms, in regards to how they have been made to work like paraphernalia to produce different astrological system. I was not shocked that Indians have kept advanced strides in one branch of knowledge — or the lack-thereof; Astrology.

Guess what? Hindu Astrology is a Sidereal Astrology, hence much advance than Western Astrology, which is a tropical astrology. This we have often taken boastfully, to mean that Indian science is advanced and far-reaching, even from the times of Vedas, but the simple facts — of my conviction, are; we have been manipulative from a very early time in our civilization’s evolution.

We just took science to produce religion. We also took religion to produce myth, and myth to produce social customs and took social customs to downplay science. Why else is “western” science advanced and we are merely a laggard participant in its various glorification.

— Of-course I don’t have words of solace to those who disagree, if like kids we assign ourselves the fancy of winning every sports, that we do not even take part in, because our parents will succumb to that whimsical demand of ours, it wouldn’t work towards science, here we have to work nonetheless, take part in each and every detail and each and every aspect, its not sufficient or even necessary to just downplay the impact of criticism.

Why Bose is not the scientist after whom Higgs is named.

A very few particles (out of 1000s) are named after scientists, eg the so called mu meson was called a Yukawa Meson, although it turned out to be a misnomer. Mu-meson was found to be a lepton, rather than a meson, as was thought by Yukawa and others.

Now called Muon it belongs in the same class that an electron belongs to, leptons, which are both Fermions. Hence initially thought to be a Boson (because all mesons would be bosons) the muon is actually a Fermion (all leptons are Fermions).

Should we say; initially muon was named after Bose, then correctly; after Fermi? That would be HOKUM. Right thing would be to say; it was named after Hideki Yukawa (wrongly as a meson or boson) then it has been named as muon which is now a Fermion. But its still named after Yukawa; given to a misnomer-correction. It can be called Yukawa-Lepton MUON (instead of Yukawa Meson Mu).

Nowhere Bose or Fermi have been the scientists after whom this particle has been named. Bose and Fermi are scientists after whom a principle of physics or nature has been named but not a particle. That would clear any mischievous air.