# Research Article

## Gravitational Anomaly.

Gravitational Anomaly: (asked by a student for very simple explanation)

Basically it means the new laws of physics known as Quantum Mechanics invalidates the sanctity of nature’s principles or laws (that is QM brings exceptions to the validity of the physical laws of nature itself)

Let us discuss this in simpler ideas from the basics only.

Remember the most basic physics, that of principle of conservation of energy and the principle of conservation of (linear) momentum.

In the more rigorous formalism of physics these two principles emanate (that is derivable) from two ideas of symmetry. In-fact every conservation principle of physics are manifestations of a corresponding principle of symmetry and vice-a-versa (also every symmetry must correspond to a conservation law). This general idea of connection between conservation laws and symmetry is collectively known as Noether’s theorem and is a central underpinning in all of today’s conceptual physics.

## Inherent ability = difficulty * accomplishment.

All of Physics is this “Inherent ability = difficulty * accomplishment”. Thats just intuitive but can easily be seen to correspond mathematically with the Principle of least action.

First the edifice: whats the problem? The problem is given you move in straight line when every direction is same around you, which direction will you chose? While you are waiting for a good answer from astrologers intelligent people already give a good hint. Think you have some inherent ability which is fixed.

fixed: which changes only if estimated wrong.

That inherent ability is actually action. Accomplishments are adjusted for difficulties, you waded through a swamp 5 meters you would have accomplished in sand 8 meters with that given inherent ability called action. Because action is abstract we have been sticking to time and path-length, but they are not as fundamental, they are merely specifics.

## A c++ code for calculating pi value.

Finally I am successful in calculating pi value — less than 0.3% error, by using random number generation. Although my computer needs some fixation on its compiler or path definition etc, there are very good online compilers which helps in testing and running c++ codes: try the given link.

OUTPUT
Computing the value of pi using std::rand()
Enter number of trials: 10000
Enter number of random (x,y) points per trial: 10
pi = 3.14376 +- 0.00519107
average – exact = 0.00216735
CPU time = 0.004027 secs

Here is the code I found by searching a good deal on the web. Yes I did tinker around but only because my own compiler (Turbo C++ on windows 10, 64 bits) was throwing some exceptions on the included headers.

#include
#include
#include
#include
//#include
using namespace std;

double pi_estimate(const unsigned long points)

## There is only one physical favor the Universe did on life.

But all of them are not stable. We have made great strides in understanding them collectively called as standard model of particle physics which involves electroweak and strong interactions. Its a weird mess of beautiful list of particles and their behavior toward each other. Sometimes there is symmetry breaking sometimes there is symmetry and sometimes there is confinement.

What such an astounding theory backed by the most swashbuckling experimental measurements have meant is there are only countable number of stable particles.

Let’s begin counting out of 100s electron, proton, photon and neutrinos … That’s it. End counting.

It explains almost everything we see around us. The matter. If we are to see dark matter we would be explaining that as well. But hold your breath we haven’t seen that so far.

Since almost everything we have seen are so unstable we wouldn’t be created.

But the very few stable particles made atoms possible and the atoms made life possible.

Here is how the atom is possible.

The neutron guy is not very happy as its not stable. It met proton on a blind date and they got

## Quantum Entanglement .. a short primer !

This fact is inherently, nothing but the concept of Quantum Entanglement. Unlike classical particles which are completely independent of each other the quantum sized objects are not. For physical intuition they are at a very small and subtle level intertwined with each other as if threads are kind of tied onto each other. We can-not toss an electron because the whole concept of one electron completely independent of all other makes sense only when all other electrons are not interacting because they are arbitrarily far away.

## This year’s Nobel prize in Chemistry.

What happens when some UV falls on biological molecules? (or any kind) some of these molecules like the wooden pole absorb the energy and there still remains energy which they can emit as visible light. So the UV light kicks the molecules and the molecules in turn emit visible light. This implies that the UV wavelength that the molecules absorbed energy at are very small compared to the wavelength at which they emit visible light. This is always the case.

When we say some materials are fluorescent it means they absorbed higher energy and emitted lower energy radiations of colorful light.

But this has a great deal of application apart from its theoretical interest.

## The angular parameters of celestial mechanics !

Define an Hour Circle.

Its a bit tricky to define some astronomical parameters and not run into innocent looking misrepresentations of facts. One needs to cool his amber more times than there are parameters, then one gets a feel where and how to begin and give a good description.

Hour Circle is a GREAT Circle, on a celestial sphere ** that, at the same time, passes through one of the celestial poles. Hence it passes through both of the celestial poles*.

A great circle is a circle that passes on a sphere, so that its radius (or diameter) equals to the radius (or diameter ) of that sphere.

If the great circle goes through one of the poles (– so both poles as an imminent condition of this definition) its also called a meridian and this circles’s angular reference wrt one of all possible meridians is called a longitude angle, or simply longitude.

## Star Motion, an interesting star concept.

To budding astronomers.

A difference between true velocity and proper velocity. Proper velocity (proper motion) is the motion of a star apparent to the center-of-mass of the solar system. That is, how fast any object (a star) is moving wrt the sun’s position. (in terms of its center-of-mass)

So if a star is close to sun, its true velocity might be as much as it is, but proper velocity can be larger. Proper velocities are often larger when stars are closer, an useful fact in Astronomy.

(How proper velocity is eg useful in Astronomy, should be a good essay type question in Indian University exams, in the course of astronomy, but rather its more useful to remove essay type questions from Exams of University and such essay should be written by students as blogs, and the best blogs can be rewarded, Change should be brought to our education system by innovative thinking and not just by lecturing on outdated spiritual discourses)

## Stars and Fate.

Astrology is the blind belief that stars change our fate — pun; like the blind belief wives change our personality. This is where Physics becomes a paraphernalia of whim, cultivated over the ages, to bring solace in seeking ignorance as a means of existential glory.

I just checked some scientific terms, in regards to how they have been made to work like paraphernalia to produce different astrological system. I was not shocked that Indians have kept advanced strides in one branch of knowledge — or the lack-thereof; Astrology.

Guess what? Hindu Astrology is a Sidereal Astrology, hence much advance than Western Astrology, which is a tropical astrology. This we have often taken boastfully, to mean that Indian science is advanced and far-reaching, even from the times of Vedas, but the simple facts — of my conviction, are; we have been manipulative from a very early time in our civilization’s evolution.

We just took science to produce religion. We also took religion to produce myth, and myth to produce social customs and took social customs to downplay science. Why else is “western” science advanced and we are merely a laggard participant in its various glorification.

— Of-course I don’t have words of solace to those who disagree, if like kids we assign ourselves the fancy of winning every sports, that we do not even take part in, because our parents will succumb to that whimsical demand of ours, it wouldn’t work towards science, here we have to work nonetheless, take part in each and every detail and each and every aspect, its not sufficient or even necessary to just downplay the impact of criticism.

Soon India will launch its navigation satellite on October 10. Its the 3rd of the 7 that India will set on voyage above Indian Nation’s geo-spatial surface, all of which will be set to function in their orbit by next year. India has taken its strides into space.

“This will provide terrestrial, aerial and marine navigation accurately and help disaster management, vehicle tracking and fleet management, mobile phone tracking, mapping of terrain as well as air and sea navigation.”

Despite of the fact that theoretically we have better than mm range accuracy …

## chiken tikka theory of how season occurs !

Take a chicken tikka stick. (you have seen them right? a few pieces of raw chicken is pierced into a stick)

Now ask yourself the question. How to get it minimally and maximally heated up by the fire from sun. If its minimally heated its winter and if its maximally heated its summer.

Now there are 3 primary parameters that influence the situation. One is called distance from the oven that sun is. Two any change that can be made to this distance is governed by two parameter. one when along a particular direction when we look at the oven how far it is? That distance can be changed a lot due to relative motion of earth and sun. Lets say therefore we will hold the chicken stick quite straight so it goes as straight as we stand on a given location on earth. Thats called a perpendicular in some poor mathematicians dictionary.

## How summer and winter occur ! A preliminary note.

Yes it is indeed winter but you wouldn’t know until the sun sets when suddenly there is a cool feeling. The day weather is still not very cool. The abrasiveness is caused by the direct glares and flares from sun which are instantly cut off when sun sets and the equilibrium conditions are felt. Plus remember that the seasons are not due to the distance of earth from sun, between maximum and minimum, the earth varies its distance only by 3.4%. The season are due to what are called the “obliquity of ecliptic” that is; The inclination of earth in its Orbital Plane of sun (maxm; 23.44 degree).

During a variation of inclination of earth the sun also changes its relative distance from above a point on earth, causing what we call as season. In scientific terms we say seasons are effected due to equinoxes and sub-solar points or solstices. All together there are 4 of these points for a place on earth per year. SO any point on earth will have 2 equinoxes and 2 solstices.

## Perihelionic Winters !

Winter and Summer are occurring counter intuitively due to valuation in a day long configuration of earth and sun. A few million kms distance change from sun isn’t causing the season, but how exactly we are tilted even at the shortest distance from sun can cause winter. And this stands to change over 26000 years, twice, so winter will sometimes occur due to how we are tilted to the sun, even if we will be farthest away from it, but we won’t be there to experience it.

## Interesting planetary facts !

Mars winter and summer would have a wider variation due to Sun’s relative distance being a 17%; variation in radiation is 34% (2 x 17%)

For earth since distance of earth and sun varies from maximum to minimum within 3.4% the variation in sun’s radiation energy is 2×3.4 = 6.8%

Also Venus is far more closer to Earth in most of its actual parameters. (eg inclinations don’t matter, mass and gravity and pressure etc do) But Venus is 31 times hotter than earth on an average and a person would feel 100 times more pressure from the atmosphere above his head. He would burn and crack like a f** fish.

## Something interesting here?

Quora has this; \sqrt 2 + \sqrt 3 ~= \pi. I see some good use. \sqrt D + \sqrt D+r ~= A [D; diameter, r; radius, A; area] Is this a new relation? and this another; 2\sqrt (D.r) + D… Read More ›

## A new optimization parameter in a statistical sample !

It reflects the quality scope of the citations. Its the total percentage of a citation that goes into defining a particular citation index. Let me call it q-index therefore (q for quality)

See this example.

My h-ind is 60. So total (minimum) citation it accounts for is 60*60 = 3600. My total citation is 12215. So my q-ind is 3600/12215 = 29.47% Or 29.47% of my total citation were important for this parameter. Hence my q-index is 29.47. In this way if someone has 500 total citation with h-index 60, he has a much better q-index than mine, because more of his paper are highly cited

## The quality of a scientific paper … A casual reposition.

The quality of a scientific paper are not ZERO if citation is zero. Perhaps we need to define two parameters, quality and significance of scientific communication. Quality; a well done research in the best traditions and methods available. Significance; the outreach of the paper to bring effect into others work and others understanding toward the subject matter.

While there will always be a downside to both parameters, citation reflects the significance (and quality as much as it correlated to significance) of a paper.

## 3 myths of physics, especially in textbooks.

2. Last year in a text book in Indian High School curriculum, I spotted and corrected with my students, the following:

Myth; there are only 3 quarks that have been detected or FOUND/confirmed so far, in nature.

Its based on a knowledge that was true more than 3 decades ago. All quarks, 6 of them, have been confirmed as hypothesized, the last of them was confirmed 2 decades ago. So there is really no reason why these facts should have been omitted from the text books that are updated every few years as such. Who are our experts?

3. During my freelance research, I have pointed out the following fact within last 3 or 2 years. A recurring myth in very advance texts of physics, concurrently followed in major and wide number of universities around the world, some of the finest texts in the field of particle physics and widely believed to be excellent, which they are nonetheless.

Myth; (particle life time and range of forces) A (force carrier) particle is long range if its mass is zero. Lifetime is the uncertainty that gives rise to an energy which is equivalenced through Einstein’s mass-energy relation and mass being zero, we have an infinite range as range is inversely proportional.

Fact; This is murky waters. Its a manipulation of sorts. Experimentally life times are quite arbitrary, while mass is supposedly fixed. Neutrino has a mean-life from 15 seconds to 10 billion seconds in order of magnitude .. I have hypothesized that’s possible, because it has such a high energy, and given it can’t lose this energy via any possible processes, it must live that long.

## Why is the helicity for a mass-less particle Lorentz invariant?

Result; now that photons are mass-less, their energy, momentum, speed, etc are no more variables, in the sense of arbitrariness. They are constants, taking only a few values, but constant in a given situation. But other particles have these properties; arbitrary. So electrons energy and momentum are not fixed, but arbitrary.

But as long as we are considering only elementary particles (that is, we are in a Quantum Zone) eg, electrons, protons, photons, and not nutmegs, soccer balls and airplanes and satellites there is another quantity that is of important consequence that is constant. Spin; whether a mass-less particle or not, spin has the same magnitude for them. that is spin is same for photon, its always 1. Spin for an electron is always 1/2. Spin for proton is always 1/2. Its for this reason photon is called a Boson**. Any thing with spin, 0, 1, 2, etc will be a Boson. Anything with spin 1/2, 3/2 etc will be called Fermion.

## Why Bose is not the scientist after whom Higgs is named.

A very few particles (out of 1000s) are named after scientists, eg the so called mu meson was called a Yukawa Meson, although it turned out to be a misnomer. Mu-meson was found to be a lepton, rather than a meson, as was thought by Yukawa and others.

Now called Muon it belongs in the same class that an electron belongs to, leptons, which are both Fermions. Hence initially thought to be a Boson (because all mesons would be bosons) the muon is actually a Fermion (all leptons are Fermions).

Should we say; initially muon was named after Bose, then correctly; after Fermi? That would be HOKUM. Right thing would be to say; it was named after Hideki Yukawa (wrongly as a meson or boson) then it has been named as muon which is now a Fermion. But its still named after Yukawa; given to a misnomer-correction. It can be called Yukawa-Lepton MUON (instead of Yukawa Meson Mu).

Nowhere Bose or Fermi have been the scientists after whom this particle has been named. Bose and Fermi are scientists after whom a principle of physics or nature has been named but not a particle. That would clear any mischievous air.