Lecture-II; delivered on 27-1-2017
In our Lecture-I we discussed the phenomena of aberrations that arise because of a discrepancy of a first order theory and the 3rd order theory as depicted by the Maclaurin series; where we saw that first order theory represents the so called paraxial optical systems.
Please have a look of the linked article to get a basic view of the ground on which we are discussing this topic. At-least going half-way through the lecture and stopping short of the derivation will do well.
We discussed that there are two kind of aberrations. Monochromatic and Chromatic. As the name suggests the monochromatic aberrations are a result of the discrepancy when we considered our incoming ray to be having a single wavelength of light.
The chromatic rays on the other hand can have multiple colors or wavelength of light. The monochromatic aberrations are also called as Seidel or Primary aberrations and we will shed more light on them today.
The chromatic aberrations were dealt in greater detail — eg the derivations pertained to the chromatic aberrations. We did so because the chromatic aberrations are simple to understand.
So lets discuss in detail the 5 types of primary aberrations now.
1. Spherical Aberration.
When Paraxial Rays refract after emerging from an object point they meet at a sharp focus.
But when non-paraxial or marginal rays emerge — or appear to emerge, from an axial object point they do not meet at a sharp focus.
Therefore different rays meet at different focal points. The resulting aberration is called as spherical aberration.