3 myths of physics, especially in textbooks. 3

2. Last year in a text book in Indian High School curriculum, I spotted and corrected with my students, the following:

Myth; there are only 3 quarks that have been detected or FOUND/confirmed so far, in nature.

Its based on a knowledge that was true more than 3 decades ago. All quarks, 6 of them, have been confirmed as hypothesized, the last of them was confirmed 2 decades ago. So there is really no reason why these facts should have been omitted from the text books that are updated every few years as such. Who are our experts?

3. During my freelance research, I have pointed out the following fact within last 3 or 2 years. A recurring myth in very advance texts of physics, concurrently followed in major and wide number of universities around the world, some of the finest texts in the field of particle physics and widely believed to be excellent, which they are nonetheless.

Myth; (particle life time and range of forces) A (force carrier) particle is long range if its mass is zero. Lifetime is the uncertainty that gives rise to an energy which is equivalenced through Einstein’s mass-energy relation and mass being zero, we have an infinite range as range is inversely proportional.

Fact; This is murky waters. Its a manipulation of sorts. Experimentally life times are quite arbitrary, while mass is supposedly fixed. Neutrino has a mean-life from 15 seconds to 10 billion seconds in order of magnitude .. I have hypothesized that’s possible, because it has such a high energy, and given it can’t lose this energy via any possible processes, it must live that long. More…