valence band and conduction band after diffusion of electrons takes place from n side to p side and creation of depletion layer.

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Energy levels in semiconductors. L-V.

Today we will discuss about energy levels and energy bands in semiconductors as well as breakdown in reverse bias.

This is because there is an attractive interaction between the nucleus and the electrons. Electrons must gain energy to go into higher energy levels. This is achieved by sources of heat, light or applied potentials. When the electrons fall from the higher energy levels they release their extra energy again in the form of heat, light or other radiation.

The energy of an electron is proportional to the size of the orbit it is found in. Thus specifying the radius of an orbit, of the electron, is equivalent to specifying its energy level. So electrons in the smallest or innermost orbit are in the first energy level. Electrons in the next higher orbit. i.e. second orbit belong to the second energy level, which is higher. Thee next orbit corresponds to the next energy level which is still higher, and so on for higher orbits and energy level.

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Forward and reverse bias of a pn junction diode.

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PN junction diodes (L-IV)

Today we will discuss about what are PN junction diodes and various conditions they can be subjected to, viz. the forward and reverse bias. We will discuss what is a depletion layer and whats a built-in potential barrier.

In our previous lecture we saw what are extrinsic semiconductors. We discussed that they are of two types, viz. p-type and n-type. By themselves the p-type and n-type semiconductors are not so useful.
But when crystals are doped so that one-half of the same is p-type and the other-half is n-type they serve very important purposes. They are now called PN-junction diode. The border or interface between the p-type part and n-type part is known as PN-junction. The PN junction finds application in almost all sorts of electronics through diodes, transistors and integrated circuits.

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Semiconductors and charge carriers: the silicon atom's electronic configuration. There are 14 electrons and 14 protons in the copper atom which makes it electrically neutral. Together with 10 electrons in the first 23 shells ( K, L ) and the 14 protons in the nucleus the copper atom's core has a net charge of + 4 e. The electron in the outermost M shell has 4 electrons, known as the valence electrons. Photo Credit:

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Conductivity and mobility in semiconductors, L-III

We will discuss in this lecture about drift velocity of electrons and holes in semiconductors which leads to the conductivity and mobility of free charge carriers in the same.

To smooth-sail through this lecture you might wanna first brush up the concepts discussed in the last two lectures: lecture I and lecture II.

Lets begin with Ohm’s law: I=V/R. — eqn 1

Here I is the electric current, V is the applied potential difference and R is the resistance of the material considered. The resistance R depends upon the length l and area of cross-section A of the given material. Let us cast Ohm’s law into a form which is independent of l and A.

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Doping tetravalent silicons with trivalent B or Al atoms produces holes.

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Semiconductors and charge carriers (L-II)

In our last lecture (L-I: lecture-I) we discussed how there are two types of charge carriers in a semiconductor; the electrons and the holes. We also discussed what are intrinsic semiconductors.

i. An intrinsic semiconductor has an equal number of electrons and holes. These are produced due to thermal excitation when an electron is dislodged from the outermost or valence orbit. This is possible as in semiconductors the difference between valence energy level and next higher energy level known as conduction energy level, is small. This difference between valence level and conduction level in energy is known as “energy gap”

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Most people out there would misunderstand the word patriarchy. They take it to mean: fatherly-rule or “through rule of the son from the father”.

In-fact more than 200 years ago they constructed a new word matriarchy to counter this “sexism”. This new word meant passing of rights through mother’s side.

While societies have been greatly sexist and favoring unfavorable and prejudiced practices for quite long patriarchy actually meant “family rule” and not “male member rule”.

This confusion arise because of misunderstanding of 2 close and interconnected

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