This lecture note will make your life ten-fold easier in the scope of the problems it addresses. Consider it a talisman. I discovered this a couple of weeks ago when I was solving these problems for my own conceptual understanding. So I waited till I can completely enunciate the big picture. When I confirmed that its valid for all the following problems I made this note and sharing with you.
Thoughts on Science
My thoughts on science and my experiences about science
According to classical mechanics — from 400 year old knowledge of physics, space and time have been considered to be separate entities but not fundamental. Space and time were not considered fundamental quantities as these parameters did not have the mandate to change physical laws of nature. They were merely the tools of the mind or the more aptly the conscious mind. They help us visualize but not dictate what ought to happen.
Gravitational Anomaly: (asked by a student for very simple explanation)
Basically it means the new laws of physics known as Quantum Mechanics invalidates the sanctity of nature’s principles or laws (that is QM brings exceptions to the validity of the physical laws of nature itself)
Let us discuss this in simpler ideas from the basics only.
Remember the most basic physics, that of principle of conservation of energy and the principle of conservation of (linear) momentum.
In the more rigorous formalism of physics these two principles emanate (that is derivable) from two ideas of symmetry. In-fact every conservation principle of physics are manifestations of a corresponding principle of symmetry and vice-a-versa (also every symmetry must correspond to a conservation law). This general idea of connection between conservation laws and symmetry is collectively known as Noether’s theorem and is a central underpinning in all of today’s conceptual physics.
Nuclear and particle physics through Scilab.
Reminiscing a dreadful day in my life. Today 16th April, a decade ago, 2007.
It was early morning. Snow flakes were making the surrounding really beautiful. Especially because I was sitting inside of a cozy air conditioned student center, looking out of the glass wall. The hazelnut flavored milk-less coffee used to be one of my favorite, especially when I would be sitting alone. I was reading a paper on “phenomenology of quantum mechanical phases related to my thesis research”. These were the days I had started writing or at-least musing about writing blogs. So I was even perhaps in the mood of writing a poem or something.
The beautiful silence was broken by a strange noise of a crowd. I looked around. A man with a long gun, as long perhaps as himself, of-course a bit smaller, wielding it to the ground was hailing at the folks around “stay indoor”.
All of Physics is this “Inherent ability = difficulty * accomplishment”. Thats just intuitive but can easily be seen to correspond mathematically with the Principle of least action.
First the edifice: whats the problem? The problem is given you move in straight line when every direction is same around you, which direction will you chose? While you are waiting for a good answer from astrologers intelligent people already give a good hint. Think you have some inherent ability which is fixed.
fixed: which changes only if estimated wrong.
That inherent ability is actually action. Accomplishments are adjusted for difficulties, you waded through a swamp 5 meters you would have accomplished in sand 8 meters with that given inherent ability called action. Because action is abstract we have been sticking to time and path-length, but they are not as fundamental, they are merely specifics.
Finally I am successful in calculating pi value — less than 0.3% error, by using random number generation. Although my computer needs some fixation on its compiler or path definition etc, there are very good online compilers which helps in testing and running c++ codes: try the given link.
Computing the value of pi using std::rand()
Enter number of trials: 10000
Enter number of random (x,y) points per trial: 10
pi = 3.14376 +- 0.00519107
average – exact = 0.00216735
CPU time = 0.004027 secs
Here is the code I found by searching a good deal on the web. Yes I did tinker around but only because my own compiler (Turbo C++ on windows 10, 64 bits) was throwing some exceptions on the included headers.
using namespace std;
double pi_estimate(const unsigned long points)
BJP is not interested in rapes because they are not committed by congress.
You know what’s trending today on twitter. #BJPstandswithrapists
These are the people that will make India digital.
1. Kiran Bedi — supposedly a strong proponent of safety of citizen and heralded as a pioneer of “liberalization of women” in the country and a brave lady, because she retired with a very high designation of police officer in the country.
She says >> small and insignificant RAPEs — and assaults, gets more coverage in media and they are overshadowing the issue of corruption.
Lesson; some rapes can be small. More so, BJP is not interested in rapes because they are not committed by congress. Corruption, when uttered by BJP has to be read as Congress, because that is how BJP sways its vote bank, by construing an image of Congress as an epitome of corruption in the country, while totally absolving the massive amount of corruption it has enacted in the very few years it has ruled in the country.
2. FM — is it a radio or an honorable minister, Arun Jaitley — says, one SMALL incident of rape in Delhi.
Lesson; rapes can be small, all rapes are not as important. It shall not concern us for various reason. Today India lost a very small match against australia, let’s wait for the world cup. Let’s not blast our honorable finance minister. He is only being inspirational.
But my own PhD thesis is a kind of different tale altogether. For my work there is no CP Violation.
In CP Violation two leptons (electrons and positrons are leptons) are imparted quite good amount of energy and made to collide against each other. Thus just like in CERN lab, there is a much smaller tunnel at the Tsukuba facility, called an accelerator-detector facility. In this facility an electron and positron pairs are given enough energy and made to circle in opposite direction.
When they collide, they are made to do so, right inside the detector. They produce pairs of B-mesons. The B-meson one and two, they are almost at rest when they are produced, in the lab frame of reference. But the matter of fact is the B-mesons are produced from what are called Upsilon (4S) mesons.
These Upsilons are called resonances, and they are highly unstable (all resonances are short lived elementary particles). So they turn into B-mesons as soon as they are created.
We need to understand first that Force can be categorized into two types. One is called tangential or collinear force. This component of the force is always along the direction of motion and changes speed of an object. It can change direction once the velocity of the object has become zero. Its NOT centripetal force. It can never make an object go in a plane or 3 D trajectory, as the motion is limited to only one dimension. The object can only go back and forth.
Now look at the other component. Its called a radial force. Its always perpendicular to the direction of motion. This force is called centripetal force, always. Note that its different from what we call central forces.
In consequence, both tangential and radial forces can be central.
This fact is inherently, nothing but the concept of Quantum Entanglement. Unlike classical particles which are completely independent of each other the quantum sized objects are not. For physical intuition they are at a very small and subtle level intertwined with each other as if threads are kind of tied onto each other. We can-not toss an electron because the whole concept of one electron completely independent of all other makes sense only when all other electrons are not interacting because they are arbitrarily far away.
What happens when some UV falls on biological molecules? (or any kind) some of these molecules like the wooden pole absorb the energy and there still remains energy which they can emit as visible light. So the UV light kicks the molecules and the molecules in turn emit visible light. This implies that the UV wavelength that the molecules absorbed energy at are very small compared to the wavelength at which they emit visible light. This is always the case.
When we say some materials are fluorescent it means they absorbed higher energy and emitted lower energy radiations of colorful light.
But this has a great deal of application apart from its theoretical interest.
Define an Hour Circle.
Its a bit tricky to define some astronomical parameters and not run into innocent looking misrepresentations of facts. One needs to cool his amber more times than there are parameters, then one gets a feel where and how to begin and give a good description.
Hour Circle is a GREAT Circle, on a celestial sphere ** that, at the same time, passes through one of the celestial poles. Hence it passes through both of the celestial poles*.
A great circle is a circle that passes on a sphere, so that its radius (or diameter) equals to the radius (or diameter ) of that sphere.
If the great circle goes through one of the poles (– so both poles as an imminent condition of this definition) its also called a meridian and this circles’s angular reference wrt one of all possible meridians is called a longitude angle, or simply longitude.
To budding astronomers.
A difference between true velocity and proper velocity. Proper velocity (proper motion) is the motion of a star apparent to the center-of-mass of the solar system. That is, how fast any object (a star) is moving wrt the sun’s position. (in terms of its center-of-mass)
So if a star is close to sun, its true velocity might be as much as it is, but proper velocity can be larger. Proper velocities are often larger when stars are closer, an useful fact in Astronomy.
(How proper velocity is eg useful in Astronomy, should be a good essay type question in Indian University exams, in the course of astronomy, but rather its more useful to remove essay type questions from Exams of University and such essay should be written by students as blogs, and the best blogs can be rewarded, Change should be brought to our education system by innovative thinking and not just by lecturing on outdated spiritual discourses)
Astrology is the blind belief that stars change our fate — pun; like the blind belief wives change our personality. This is where Physics becomes a paraphernalia of whim, cultivated over the ages, to bring solace in seeking ignorance as a means of existential glory.
I just checked some scientific terms, in regards to how they have been made to work like paraphernalia to produce different astrological system. I was not shocked that Indians have kept advanced strides in one branch of knowledge — or the lack-thereof; Astrology.
Guess what? Hindu Astrology is a Sidereal Astrology, hence much advance than Western Astrology, which is a tropical astrology. This we have often taken boastfully, to mean that Indian science is advanced and far-reaching, even from the times of Vedas, but the simple facts — of my conviction, are; we have been manipulative from a very early time in our civilization’s evolution.
We just took science to produce religion. We also took religion to produce myth, and myth to produce social customs and took social customs to downplay science. Why else is “western” science advanced and we are merely a laggard participant in its various glorification.
— Of-course I don’t have words of solace to those who disagree, if like kids we assign ourselves the fancy of winning every sports, that we do not even take part in, because our parents will succumb to that whimsical demand of ours, it wouldn’t work towards science, here we have to work nonetheless, take part in each and every detail and each and every aspect, its not sufficient or even necessary to just downplay the impact of criticism.
Soon India will launch its navigation satellite on October 10. Its the 3rd of the 7 that India will set on voyage above Indian Nation’s geo-spatial surface, all of which will be set to function in their orbit by next year. India has taken its strides into space.
“This will provide terrestrial, aerial and marine navigation accurately and help disaster management, vehicle tracking and fleet management, mobile phone tracking, mapping of terrain as well as air and sea navigation.”
Despite of the fact that theoretically we have better than mm range accuracy …