Application of matrix method to thick lens. 1

Our previous studies of optical systems were based on two premises.
We assumed a paraxial system.
This means we employed a first order optical theory. Check the article just linked for a good overview of whats paraxial optics and whats first order optical theory. Such assumptions are fraught with various types of aberrations which we studied in detail in lecture-I and lecture-II.
We assumed that our lenses are thin.
This we did for simplicity. In Physics when we assume a simple situation we are not evading the actual complexity of the situation, we are just postponing this to the happy hour, howsoever you define it. Some people go by the Friday happy hour rule. It gives a good substratum on which a disposition can be carried out. Later one develops the nuances and fits it into the substratum and if things are carried out with caution and skill one gets a very effective overview of the pedagogy.
Let us now delve into the complexity of the optical system as a next step from its simple substratum of a thin lens. Our analysis needs to be modified for applying optical principles to optical systems when we consider thick lenses. In our last lecture we studied the method of matrices in understanding optical ray tracing. Let us now apply this method to the case of thick lens and see what power it unleashes. More…