# Blackholes and the Action Principle. Reply

This is not an article that purports to establish any link between what I have to say about Blackholes and what I have to say about Action Principle.

First off there are always a connection between action principle and anything else in Physics. Everything in principle can be derived from the action principle. The action principle is the general principle of all sorts of mechanics in Physics and has the weird power of superiority over everything else, at-least in principle. So if you want to claim something is inconsistent in Physics, take a piece of chalk and chalk out how it is that the action principle is inconsistent with anything that you want to discard. The action principle has the key to proving how consistent or inconsistent Physics is.

And I am not stating the action principle much, either. I just wish to mention two ideas that have no explicit connection to be brought out by this article. Hence they are to be read without any purported conjunctions of one with the other. More…

# Whats Light. A small primer. 1

A small primer on optical attributes of Light.

Manmohan Dash,

( — largely edited, 18-19 January 2014, originally from; Wednesday, March 27, 2013 at 3:58 pm UTC + 05:30 )

Updated Discourse.

If you ever seem, to be caught up between: they say light always moves at the same speed-c, they keep on harping, why then, its energy so different; we have light of various energy and frequencies. One that are harmful, like x-ray or ultraviolet and one that are quite soft on us all. The answer is there are two kinds of speed, when it comes to vector emissions like light, one speed is on the plane of polarization, giving us the energy or frequency or intensity of light waves, and the other, the speed perpendicular to that plane, that is; the speed at which energy of light is transmitted across the galaxy, its this latter speed, which is slated to be known as speed-of-light (instead of, speed of light’s energy transmission vs speed that determines the energy value of light transmission) and always a constant known as c, whose value is unchanged, as long as a single quantum of light is considered and in vacuum.

Note that vector emission means there are 3 dimensions, in which this wave is created or propagated, light wave, its a plane + a perpendicular dimension to that plane. The plane is called plane of polarization which always contains two fields, Electric and Magnetic field, and the perpendicular dimension is the direction in which the energy of the light wave is propagated, therefore, gives the light-wave-speed; which are again of two definition, the physical or actual speed known as group velocity, and the virtual, conceptual speed of each wave train, known as phase velocity. This definition of phase and group velocity are always to occur; for any kind of waves and not just light wave. So, the light-wave-group-velocity (for a single quantum-of-light, called photon) is always c = 2.99 x 10 (8) meters/second, in vacuum. More…

# what do we know about photon/light 3

Compare to the most precise 1.99×10^8 m/s of today to what Fizeu obtained: 3.12×10^8. Amazing considering he set it up like this: mirrors and reflectors about 9 kms apart. The light near the source would be either stopped … More…