Photo Credit; bham.ac.uk

Atoms with nuclei and electrons. Nucleus has nucleons in it which are two types, protons and neutryons. The protons and neutrons are Baryons with each having two different combination of 3 quarks (uud and udd)

Two new Baryons at LHC. Reply

Two new Baryons at LHC.

Two new Baryons at LHCb.
LHCb, the famed experiment at CERN, Switzerland found a year ago two new Baryons. These are important steps in testing the validity of our state of the art understanding of current model of the Physical Universe, mostly in considering the “particle constituents” of the matter around us, and known by the name Standard Model — of Particle Physics.

Atoms with nuclei and electrons. Nucleus has nucleons in it which are two types, protons and neutrons. The protons and neutrons are Baryons with each having two different combination of 3 quarks — uud and udd.

Protons and Neutrons as Baryons, that is an eternal bond of 3 quarks. uud and udd. Note that the spring is the gluon. Much like a spring transmits a mechanical force these gluons have an assigned duty to transfer the strong nuclear forces from one participant to the other.

1. First off it does so by colliding protons with protons at gigantic speeds, at the speed of light. So these protons are 1000 times more energetic than their own mass. If you are 60 kg, your energy is 600 Joule, if you move freely a distance of 1 meter, consider yourself to be thrown so fast that you have 1000 times that energy. Both examples are approximately true.

2. Protons are called Baryons. Anything with 3 quarks in them, as we know them today are called as Baryon. The 3 quarks will never separate into single relationship status. Its a triangular love, in which each partner has their share of love meted out. Sorry particles are decidedly promiscuous. 😉 And never break their relations as long as they are bonded this way.

3. These new baryons — 3 quarks in eternal bonding, are about 6 times heavier than proton. SInce protons were bombarded onto each other madly, with energies that are 1000 times bigger than their own mass, the possibility of heavier particles such as these new baryons materialized. So the protons did not break in a way quarks will cry out “I am single again” but rather go into relationships with other quarks and form heavier relationships. More…

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Waves, particles and Einstein ! 1

Waves are something that have no mass and move at the maximum speed, mass m = 0. speed c = 1. So whats their momentum? p = m.v = 0? Right?

No. For pure waves; momentum does not come from mass. It comes only from motion.

(pure wave; they do not have mass)

For matter waves, on the other hand, momentum comes in two ways, mass as well as motion.

(impure, now they have mass)

Albert Einstein recognized this fact and derived his relation; $latex E = \sqrt {(pc)^2+(mc^2)^2}$

This relation is called as Einstein’s relativistic equation, also Einstein’s mass-energy relation. But more appropriately mass-energy-momentum relation.

Let us consider E as the hypotenuse, p and m; as base or perpendicular as is your choice.

triangle_copyThen $latex E = \sqrt {(pc)^2+(mc^2)^2}$ is Pythagoras Theorem; when p is momentum and m is mass.

For pure waves such as photon … the quanta of light, m = 0.

Hence the Pythagorean Triangle is now one, where the mass side is arbitrary small. Thus E = p. More…

New forms of Uncertainty Relationships in Quantum Mechanics. Reply

ΔE.Δt ~ h

Δp.Δx ~ h

ΔL.Δθ  ~ h

* Shouldn’t the constant above be ℏ/2 ? Let us first clear up some air of confusion.

The above relations are kind of vague even though look like canonically powerful ways to represent the formal concepts of the Heisenberg Uncertainty relationships. I have myself confused with these at times … with the added degree of confusion coming from h or h-cross?

But there is nothing to be ashamed of, if one makes such mistakes.

Does ℏ/2 come due to normalization of wave function or discrepancy in definition? eg do they come because variance (ΔE, Δx) and standard deviation (σx , σH ). More…

Basic ideas of Particle Physics.. A Klong Meson 4

Another example of importance of Particle Physics as is understood by the general public is Blackhole. Well see blackhole is not a particle-phyics idea but the general public knows LHC is a particle-physics lab which produces blackholes that can engulf the world. Such was the paranoia in the year 2008 before LHC had started banging its protons into protons at the speed of light. In roughly 4 years the Higgs-like has been discovered. Why I say its a Higgs-like and not a Higgs? Because the Scientists are not perfectly sure that Higgs is that which they have found. If you want to remember Higgs here is a hint: it sounds like Eggs. {like in my eggs-girlfriend, My Higgs-girlfriend and my ex-girlfriend don’t they all sound the same?} More…

Basic concepts of Monte Carlo and reconstruction. 1

This scheme as you could see is only a flip-flop and works to check if this works and my toy Monte Carlo proved that it does. But in real situations this Dzero mass constraint is used to recover the Klong 4-vector which also means we have the Dzero full-info now. But we input some Dzero info as given {its mass} hence its only trivial. But we can add this Dzero to other released particles in the topography and see the signal in terms of D* particle. More…

Energy-time uncertainty is a distance-time and speed-time uncertainty 5

OPERA sees 7.5 km/s fallout which goes above photon-speed. This will be consistent with Relativity if they incurred a larger error on their energy while at the same time keeping their time uncertainty between 1 to 10 nanosecs. SO they need to show us their energy distribution with uncertainties … More…