photocredit: http://satheeshnuketutorials.blogspot.in/2012/08/chromatic-aberration.html

Aberrations; a lecture in Optics. 1

Optical systems are studied under two assumptions

object point does not lie far away from the axis of the optical system.

rays taking part in image formation make a small angle with the axis of the optical system.

The domain of optics where above two assumptions are valid is called as Paraxial optics. Paraxial systems are highly idealized and in reality do not perfectly represent the situation. The consequential errors in image reconstruction are known as aberrations.
The paraxial assumption can be represented by truncating at the first term of the polynomial expansion of the sin function by the Maclaurin series. More…

cplusplus

A c++ code for calculating pi value. Reply

Finally I am successful in calculating pi value — less than 0.3% error, by using random number generation. Although my computer needs some fixation on its compiler or path definition etc, there are very good online compilers which helps in testing and running c++ codes: try the given link.

OUTPUT
Computing the value of pi using std::rand()
Enter number of trials: 10000
Enter number of random (x,y) points per trial: 10
pi = 3.14376 +- 0.00519107
average – exact = 0.00216735
CPU time = 0.004027 secs

Here is the code I found by searching a good deal on the web. Yes I did tinker around but only because my own compiler (Turbo C++ on windows 10, 64 bits) was throwing some exceptions on the included headers.

#include
#include
#include
#include
//#include
using namespace std;

double pi_estimate(const unsigned long points) More…

India’s Navigation Satellites. Reply

Soon India will launch its navigation satellite on October 10. Its the 3rd of the 7 that India will set on voyage above Indian Nation’s geo-spatial surface, all of which will be set to function in their orbit by next year. India has taken its strides into space.

“This will provide terrestrial, aerial and marine navigation accurately and help disaster management, vehicle tracking and fleet management, mobile phone tracking, mapping of terrain as well as air and sea navigation.”

Despite of the fact that theoretically we have better than mm range accuracy … More…

The quality of a scientific paper … A casual reposition. Reply

The quality of a scientific paper are not ZERO if citation is zero. Perhaps we need to define two parameters, quality and significance of scientific communication. Quality; a well done research in the best traditions and methods available. Significance; the outreach of the paper to bring effect into others work and others understanding toward the subject matter.

While there will always be a downside to both parameters, citation reflects the significance (and quality as much as it correlated to significance) of a paper. More…

Why Japanese is the most elaborate Language? Reply

Couple years ago, for this reason, not the kai reason, but any phonetic-word-attempt which gave me tons of kanjis, for same phonetics, I said, Japanese Language has so many synonyms, (perhaps this is anti-synonym, but in my defense, I don’t remember exact word I used, its a memory retrieval, you see) and still Japanese Language unites them all and makes into one language; we can also do this for Indian language.
Indian (Language) would be far easier (than the complexity of Japanese) in that, given, lets say, jack-fruit will have 8 different words only, across India, then, we have to put them all into one syllable-alphabet unit (that can be newly defined, because now we have at-least 20 ways to define) eg Hindi: kathar/kathal, Odi: panas (Telugu also Panas, I know, I asked this to my friend 15 years ago, he was from AP, his name Venkateswaralu Goruganthi, funny fella with thilak on his head, see since when I am doing my language research?) I don’t know more language, lets say: Gujurati: xyz.

Then take all Indian Language and list these into one unit. That unit would be given a special phonetic tag. (Because we don’t have any) The reverse of this has been accomplished by Japanese. By having each meaning for a single phonetic or syllable unit as a kanji (or pictorial unit) they have unified language. Back then I said, 20 some synonyms, (so many = 20) Lets count today.
As if a coincidence I found 20. Although, there would be, some redundant issues here (eg 買い and 買 ) and a few more may be left. (eg I remember, now I know some Japanese Language by memory: kai = write, kai in kaishi = begin). Lets see what we found in Japanese for kai; each of the following is kai, with different meaning. Only one is (sa)kai and couple are not known (just kai, in 2nd line), from where I am searching. Lets then, give their meaning.

会 回 海 買い 貝 階 解 界 介 下位 峡 怪 甲斐 飼い 買 櫂 快 歌意 交い 科医

Meeting Time Sea Buy Shellfish Floor Solution Field Through Subordinate Isthmuses Mystery Worth Domestic Purchase Paddle Comfort Kai Kai Family-physician More…

hirakatagana-page1

hiragana, katakana and romaji characters. Reply

hiragana, katakana and romaji characters. The Japanese alphabet-syllabary. I created the following charts with color, and design. The original source of the chart is available at omniglot.

hirakatagana-page1

hirakatagana-page2 hirakatagana-page3 hirakatagana-page4