Neither is San like Ji a particle in Japanese as pointed out by the author of this “wikibooks” article linked above. A particle can combine to verbs, nouns, adjectives etc not just a namesake, it has infinite partners therefore in an invisible language space because it works on or gets worked by true linguistic constructions not just a name or a person or God!! (God Ji)
True examples of particles in Hindi are
1. “to” ( i. to me-i-ne u-se de di-ya, ii. aa-o to, iii. aa-e-gaa to de de-n-ge)
2. “se” (me-i-ne us se li-ya, tum se naw-hi-n)
3. “ne” (tum ne mu-jh-e 5 baw-je mi-l-ne ko kaw-ha thaa) NE of Hindi is like WA of Japanese Language.
4. “ko” (ji-s ko bo-laa jaa-e waw-hi kaw-re-ga) It’s counterpart is Japanese particle “ni” and in some cases “e”, Odia Particle “ku” and “e” represent Japanese “ni”and “e” (which can sometimes be used interchangeably)
Not just Hindi, in NO Indian Languages particles have been studied (or even defined so far as I know, so far) extensively, as far as I know. Perhaps zero substantial research has been done. But a point in making is how congruently Odia Particles are equal to Japanese Particles ?, I have given examples in the long article I wrote on translation from Japanese to Odia.
read more The pseudo-science of language !! #mdashf #kanji4