How summer and winter occur ! A preliminary note. Reply

Yes it is indeed winter but you wouldn’t know until the sun sets when suddenly there is a cool feeling. The day weather is still not very cool. The abrasiveness is caused by the direct glares and flares from sun which are instantly cut off when sun sets and the equilibrium conditions are felt. Plus remember that the seasons are not due to the distance of earth from sun, between maximum and minimum, the earth varies its distance only by 3.4%. The season are due to what are called the “obliquity of ecliptic” that is; The inclination of earth in its Orbital Plane of sun (maxm; 23.44 degree).

During a variation of inclination of earth the sun also changes its relative distance from above a point on earth, causing what we call as season. In scientific terms we say seasons are effected due to equinoxes and sub-solar points or solstices. All together there are 4 of these points for a place on earth per year. SO any point on earth will have 2 equinoxes and 2 solstices. More…

Perihelionic Winters ! Reply

Winter and Summer are occurring counter intuitively due to valuation in a day long configuration of earth and sun. A few million kms distance change from sun isn’t causing the season, but how exactly we are tilted even at the shortest distance from sun can cause winter. And this stands to change over 26000 years, twice, so winter will sometimes occur due to how we are tilted to the sun, even if we will be farthest away from it, but we won’t be there to experience it. More…

Interesting planetary facts ! Reply

Mars winter and summer would have a wider variation due to Sun’s relative distance being a 17%; variation in radiation is 34% (2 x 17%)

For earth since distance of earth and sun varies from maximum to minimum within 3.4% the variation in sun’s radiation energy is 2×3.4 = 6.8%

Also Venus is far more closer to Earth in most of its actual parameters. (eg inclinations don’t matter, mass and gravity and pressure etc do) But Venus is 31 times hotter than earth on an average and a person would feel 100 times more pressure from the atmosphere above his head. He would burn and crack like a f** fish. More…

A new optimization parameter in a statistical sample ! Reply

It reflects the quality scope of the citations. Its the total percentage of a citation that goes into defining a particular citation index. Let me call it q-index therefore (q for quality)

See this example.

My h-ind is 60. So total (minimum) citation it accounts for is 60*60 = 3600. My total citation is 12215. So my q-ind is 3600/12215 = 29.47% Or 29.47% of my total citation were important for this parameter. Hence my q-index is 29.47. In this way if someone has 500 total citation with h-index 60, he has a much better q-index than mine, because more of his paper are highly cited More…

Why Bose is not the scientist after whom Higgs is named. Reply

A very few particles (out of 1000s) are named after scientists, eg the so called mu meson was called a Yukawa Meson, although it turned out to be a misnomer. Mu-meson was found to be a lepton, rather than a meson, as was thought by Yukawa and others.

Now called Muon it belongs in the same class that an electron belongs to, leptons, which are both Fermions. Hence initially thought to be a Boson (because all mesons would be bosons) the muon is actually a Fermion (all leptons are Fermions).

Should we say; initially muon was named after Bose, then correctly; after Fermi? That would be HOKUM. Right thing would be to say; it was named after Hideki Yukawa (wrongly as a meson or boson) then it has been named as muon which is now a Fermion. But its still named after Yukawa; given to a misnomer-correction. It can be called Yukawa-Lepton MUON (instead of Yukawa Meson Mu).

Nowhere Bose or Fermi have been the scientists after whom this particle has been named. Bose and Fermi are scientists after whom a principle of physics or nature has been named but not a particle. That would clear any mischievous air. More…

Ideas that changed our notion about the Universe. Reply

1. Aristotle Fallacy; A notion that objects need force for their movement. It contradicts the idea of inertia. Newton corrected this by introducing the first law, things continue in their state of motion, a quality called as inertia, without requiring force and the motion changes due to application of force.

2. Earth is flat; that there is a boundary where you fall off its edge. [I am not going to explain or tell you how and when we found this was a horrendously hilarious and misleading notion we had. But it might have been used in the past by parents to discipline their teen-age kids. Don’t go out, you will fall off earth. That would have kept them in check.]

3. Rotational Dynamics; Earth is accelerating in a near circle in addition to about itself, so additional forces are acting that changes our observation about the world. Newton tried to understand this (not successful) in his last days, by rotating a bucket full of water, his laws could not explain the effects observed. His laws needed to be modified slightly. The same thing makes objects feel weightless by a given amount if they are accelerating towards a gravitational field (eg merry go round, satellites) This is the basis of many works of Einstein. First came Mach’s Principle which says observations made from objects that are accelerating in circular paths are to be corrected by fixing frames of references to stars that are so far away that the rotational motion is neglected. [if you shake your head while looking at stars and shake your head by looking at nearby objects such as a light post, evidently the light post shakes more and the stars less]. This helps in correcting observed phenomena from earth. Earth moves at 30 kms/second wrt sun … More…