one experimental particle physics fact motivated by the recent Higgs search results (from Lepton-Photon, Mumbai where I was not present)
WE need to see this with the most fundamental laws of nature Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle: wrote an article on this in march this year; http://wp.me/pkgHV-d30 (the short link wasn’t working perhaps, here is the main article which used the idea of uncertainty principle among other things: http://webmohan.wordpress.com/2011/03/08/life-time-of-particles-and-time-dilation/)
There are 4 variables in a particle’s detection and characteristics that play a central role, 2 of them are the particle’s characteristics, the other 2 are nature’s laws, Heisenberg’s uncertainty law to be precise.
The particle properties are nature’s facts not laws, these facts can be as arbitrary as we have often seen, starting from a protons life time of ~10^30 years to it’s mass being similar to a plenty of mesons whose life time are only picoseconds.
No…w you will say proton the baryon, a baryon is a Mr particle, widowed, with 3 quark children, always, makes life possible so it has to live for very long time. But neutron the baryon, baryon is the religious sect it belongs to “so to say like mormonism”, Mr particle, widowed with 3 children also, lives on an average for only 15 minutes if left free. If it lives with it’s widow friend Mr particle, the proton, under the latter’s influence lives for quite long hence we get stable atoms.
Kshort and Klongs which belong to the “sect” of mesons (always have 2 quark kids only) on the other hand are almost equally heavy, perhaps one has eaten a little double extra cheese burger just before being weighed, live for very different times. Kshorts lives only ~90 picoseconds on an average where as Klongs live at-most 512 picoseconds on an average.
Now protons and neutrons are almost same weight, one has eaten a double extra cheese burger before being weighed, but live for quite different times. Thus particle’s life time has no connection with their masses, a common misconception carried by practitioners of Physics at the highest level.
Their confusion stems from their text-bookish knowledge where Heisenberg’s uncertainity principle is linked to particle life time and mass (energy).
The uncertainity principle on the other hand has nothing to do with particle behavior (kinematics or properties) as such but is a fundamental law of nature where it tells a relation between uncertainties you must make between energy and time variables if they are associated in the same measurement.
SO the uncertainities translate as the width of measurement of the particle’s mass/energy and particle’s life time. The width is the uncertainty: these are correlated for the mass/energy and life time but not related to the particle’s mean/average “mass/energy” or life-time itself.
SO there are 3 independent variable as such because one is correlated. The width or uncertainties clad (adds indeterminacy or errors and imprecisions) our measurement depending on their value but they do not decide what the mean value of energy/mass or life-time ought to be.
They are to be found out from experiment, always, and if theory is used from a standard aceptable theory.