Damn it, but “Einstein”: *your clock slows down when there is less energy*, your clock

**stops**when there is no battery. ..

I think this is

mostprofound article, I have ever written, among my articles. It explains why time dilation occurs and removes some misunderstandings, that survived a century. Space is equivalent to time, but distance is not equivalent to time. Distance is equivalent to time-unit. Therefore space contracts, time contracts. space dilates, time dilates. They are equivalents. They would not be, if, they do not change, in the same way some other equivalent variables changes. There is some technicalities but this is understandable, by most people, who have any interest, as this is written in much simpler way.

**Time Dilation** is one of the **simplest** *concepts of Physics*.

**Einstein** is *famous* for this **idea**, of time-dilation, because, he gave a mathematical form to it. But here is the idea, in its **qualitative** understanding: *time slows down because energy disappears*.

**That** *time slows down because energy disappears ***is** one of the most **general** behavior of time dilation, I can **think**.

As an **analogy**, our **ability** to do something **slows down,** when we have **less** energy, when something “*gradually*” **moves away** from **us** there **is** time-dilation or slowing-of-time, **as,** there is **less** energy available to us … as in **red-shift**, when something “*gradually*” moves closer to **us,** there **is** time-contraction, rapidity or blue-shift.

**Dilation** means expansion or elongation. The duration-of-time has *increased*. What used to take **1** *second* now takes **1.3** *seconds*, as an **example**. **Each** unit-of-time has *increased*. Its like; our body is now more wide, **so**, each unit **in** our body has *expanded*. **If**, there are **two** *lines (marks)* on our body, and our body **dilates,** the separation between the two lines, has *increased*.

Similarly, the **contraction** is a *shortening* or *decrease,* in duration-of-time or separation-of-time-tics. **It** does **not** matter its **time** or **distance** we are talking about, **as**, *time* and *distance* are **equivalent**. But, we hear people **saying**: “time **dilates** and space or length **contracts**“. Thats like, **saying**, “women *move* to the **left** and men *move* to the **right**“. And then, we would realize, **they can both**, *move*, both, to the **left** and to the **right**.

Then we realize “men and women are **equivalents**” if **not** *equal*. We know, what **it** **is**, that does **not** let them, be **equal**, *physically*, but, apart from that, whats the difference between men and women? Really **not** much. Well, lets explore.

But then, **why,** people, experts, **say;** *time dilates and space contracts*? **Because**, thats what, **is,** *written in the texts*. They haven’t **thought** *through* the **alternatives** of “time contracts” and “space dilates“. **If,** that were **not** *so*, it would be **absurd**, to **say**;* time and space are equivalents*. Was **Einstein** mad to have said so? He had **calculated** his *stuffs*.

This is **Special Relativity**: a velocity (**+**, **–**) **v** means; *disappearance* (recession) **or** *appearance* (approach) of **energy**.

**Similarly**,

**General Relativity**: *gravitational energy disappears in a gravity potential*, **potential** is **v**(**2**) (for *square of velocity*), again **energy disappears**, that is, **not** available to **us**, hence we measure slower time.

Let me **explain,** a little more.

While **musing** about this, in a soft voice, to myself, like I am giving some lectures, I **formed** a *better* **idea**, and came with the **reason**; *why this is so?* (**why** the above is so)

**Energy Conservation**.

**What** was really running in Einstein’s Mind for decades or years, when he came up, with his ideas of **Relativity**? **Energy Conservation** and the **fact**, that; *everything runs because of energy*. **Even**, time runs, **if** there is **energy**.

**Time** runs *slower*, **if** there **is** *less* energy, and **time** runs *faster* **if** there **is** *more* energy. Just **like**, a clock runs faster, **if** there **is** *more* energy in the **spring**. Our **clock** is then, adjusted; *to run at the constant pace*. But **nature** isn’t like *that*.

**Nature** does **not** fix **its** clocks; *to run at the same pace*. **If** nature runs *out of* energy, **time** runs **slow** and **if,** it **gains** energy; *time runs faster*. That is the **only** *idea* behind time-dilation. (*and from now on also, time-contraction*)

Also, the **idea** I gave you **is**, *natural time is unbridled*. The clocks in **nature** are not a constant-rate-clocks. (Although)I do **not** know one **scientist** in the world, including, the famous “greatest scientist” Hawking**,** who has so far, said **so**. **Why** I am **saying** this, because, they show these clocks, in the science books, and it creates an **impression** in the *smart* but layman’s mind, **that,** whenever **time** is *mentioned*, in **Physics**, it corresponds, to something; *going on at a fix rate*.

Thats **why**, I think, people never understood; **time** *dilation is much simpler,* and any one would have **understood** it.

OK, **so,** what was playing in Einstein’s *mind*? Energy Conservation and the **fact** that; energy is **necessary** for “**running**” of *everything*. **Energy** is more **fundamental** than **time**. Energy is **physical** and **time** is information (and a parameter). Although, this time, we have a physical apparatus which *measures* **time**. But the fact **is** they actually *measure ***energy**.

**How** do they *measure,* **energy**? They sometimes *measure* **distance** or **speed** or some *such* **variable**. In-fact everyone sees **distance** **, but no-one **sees** *time*. But then, more fundamentally, no-one sees **distance** either. Because, no-one **sees ***energy*. Each of **them** are correlated with the stuff we see around us, and then, we have studied much in detail, and found out ways; *how-to measure one in terms of another*.

But in an intuitive way, without much complexity, *energy is fundamental*, and we draw **analogies**. If you got energy, you can run, if you don’t have energy, you don’t. And being what we **are**, we understand then, what energy is, but we do **not** go any beyond, not everyone understands, this **simple** concept. We see space in a crude way, but **not** in the sense of **distance**. But then, the sense and vision, makes it possible for us; *to know and calculate distance*, in a **humanly** way.

Only **when** we develop devices far **advance**, do we *measure* distance, and gradually develop a sense of, what distance **is** and from there, we,* also develop sense of what time is*, eg, by developing, various kind of watches and clocks. We develop a sense of what speed is and **connect** it to measurable ways, because, we know distance and time. Energy comes in later when we realize that there must be something, which is like an account, from where, we can decide “how much” we can do *stuff*.

This “how much” is different from the “how much” of distance and “how much” of time, but we **know** *intuitively,* all these, “how much”, are correlated (mathematically) or connected (intuitively). In-fact, the only physical variable in the world **is** “how much”, rest is **detail**. I love you. *How much*? **Poet**: as much as an Ocean. **Physicist**: let me get a slide caliper.

** More truly no one **sees** distance either, they see matter and objects, and based on their past experience, visual ability and intuition etc, they form a sense for distance. But then, no one **sees** energy either. There is **not** a single physical variable, that we can **see,** its because, they are variables. (that is, mathematical quantities that have various distributed values.) *No one sees a mathematical quantity.*

So now that we know the two facts, that Einstein must have ran, in his mind;

1. Everything **runs** on the information of “how much”, it can run because “how much” is there, and this time Energy being well-defined in Physics, “Energy decides everything even time”

2. Energy is Conserved.

The 2. is; in any process “how much” we start with “as much” we end with, because, there is **nothing** that makes a human being capable of worldly logic, **infer**, that there is something, that invalidates the “constancy” of “how much”, or invalidates everything by a streak of **indeterminacy**.

I had 5 $s and at the same statement it can not be written or claimed, I had 9$s. Its determined and definitive, that, I had “how much” and given that there is nothing happening to such, it must remain “as much”. This is called a conservation principle of “muchness” or “quantity”, and in our discussion **Energy**.

So, intuitively, Einstein knew, Energy is conserved, and; amount of Energy determines the flow of time. ( — and determines everything else, because Energy is only equivalent to, every other physical variable.)

Then, how does it follow, from conservation principle of Energy, that, **time dilates**? For another matter, you can use the Relativistic Equations ( — or the mathematical principles of Relativity) that, E = m.c-square follows, from, conservation of energy and momentum. Similarly, time dilation would also follow.

But whats so **simple** about time-dilation? Time being decided by energy, more energy will allow faster time and less energy a slower time. This is time dilation, if you lose energy, (energy unavailable as in case of recession of objects from each other called Red Shift) and time contraction, if you gain energy. (energy available by gain as in case of approach of objects towards each other called Blue Shift)

This is Special Theory of Relativity. It involves only a **v** to the first order (v=velocity) or higher orders, as well. Because velocity essentially means energy, something receding with speed, velocity **v** is an unavailable corresponding energy and therefore **slower time**. A slower time is possible when time ticks appear at a longer duration. (duration of time or unit of time has increased, therefore, what used to take **1** second now takes **1.3** seconds **or** the unit is **1.3/1.0** which is **> 1** hence unit has **dilated** or time has dilated)

In the same logic, time contraction occurs, **if**, something approaches you (Blue shift). But space and time being equivalents this means, space dilates and contracts and time dilates and contracts. Things to note: **space has 3 dimensions,** hence, the **resulting*** space effects are a bit more complicated*. I have a **paper** on **binomial analysis** of Doppler’s Effect and time dilation, contraction, which gives, all details; transverse and longitudinal **Doppler Effect**.

Now energy is conserved, that is, *constant,* hence, it must correspond, to a constant speed. (slightly tricky statement, isn’t it?) Because, Energy can only, be a function of speed (kinetic energy) or configuration (that is relative position etc, potential energy) But special Relativity is a matter of kinetic energy and general Relativity is a matter of potential energy.

In general behavior, Relativity is “more energy => faster time”, “less energy => slower time”, same energy => same speed, hence, both, faster and slower time, depending on, shorter or longer distance.

So given that speed **v** is **constant**, it means **d/t** ratio is **same**. That means **d** and **t,** change at the, same fraction. If time unit **doubles,** so **does** space units. Which is **why**; space and time are equivalents. We could have said, space dilation and time dilation. But understand the fact, that, unit of time and unit of space, are used in different mindset. We want everything to be slower, hence dilation of time, because dilation of time signifies “more time”, as the units have dilated or increased, which is also same as saying, time is slower, because, it takes longer time.

Time is material or you or me, (if) you take longer, time takes longer, there is nothing given special to time because we measure stuff via time. Its only that, we measure stuff via time, in a day-to-day affairs, but for Physics, everything is not measured via time, but that one supreme variable: “how much“.

When its a longer time, so also, its a, longer distance, so that, **the ratio is same**, and this ratio being **speed**, **energy** is same. Hence, Energy Conservation or Constancy of Energy means, **time is dilated**, or, **slowed down**, if, there is **less** **energy** *available*, which is when, thing go away from each other, or, things fall in a well of gravity.

The constancy of speed therefore **is** intermediate between constancy of energy and **changes** in units of time and distance in the **same manner**. *Time dilates because energy disappears* and *time contracts because energy appears*. **If** energy appeared distance is short, therefore, time unit must be short, which is, time is faster or clocks run faster or **time contraction**.

Its **confusing,** because, its actually, time unit contraction or time unit dilation. **Space is equivalent to time** but distance is equivalent to time-unit. If we were, this careful, for the last century, we did not need, so much new mathematics, because language would have sufficed to do much, how many **equations** did I **use** in this article ?, which is I guess, one **very long** article, because, *I have been writing and writing*. We’ll see how long it has turned out when I publish.

Now that time dilation from kinetic energy or special relativistic time dilation is clear its the same **reason** for general relativistic or potential energy type dilation or contraction.

Potential Energy is **v**(**2**) (**v**-squared). **Why**? Because, kinetic energy and potential energy appear, in the same way, in Equations of Physics. They have equal things to carry out, although, sometimes, they work in opposite, because, one is the **source** and the other is the **benefactor**. Since **K.E.** and **P.E.** appear in the same way, 1/2 **m**.**v**(**2** ) is equivalent to **m**.**V** where, **V**, **is;** the gravity potential by *definition*. Hence, a factor of arbitrariness, notwithstanding, **m**.**V** **is;** the potential energy.

That **means**, from unit and dimension consideration, the potential (**not** potential energy but just potential of gravity) must be, **v**(**2**) and **it** also **must** *be conserved*, if we consider potential energy only, as and when, we have considered or will consider kinetic energy **separately**. Now kinetic energy is also **v**(**2**) but special relativity is **formulated** in terms of **v** which is still equivalent, to, **v**(**2**), because, one determined the other, only in **one** way, and, **no more**.

So, potential being **V** ~ **v**(**2**); **V** is constant if **v** is constant. So, only if speed is constant, potential and potential energy are constant. But, when speed **v** is constant, the ratio of **d** and **t** must be, as well. Which means, time-unit and distance are equivalents, and, they must, change in the same way, **they dilate together** and **they contract together,** with the variation of, energy or speed, kinetic or potential **not** withstanding.

Now this means, if you fall in a gravity, or, any kind of potential, that means, you are losing energy, and therefore, **you are observing your time to be slowing down**, because now, **less energy is available to you**, to your time, to your clock, to everything. You see, its “how much”, the one supreme variable, nothing else, for **nature**.

Nature does **not** have an euphemism for time, called, **clock**. Thats an anthropic euphemism. Nature understands **energy** not, **time** not, **speed** not, **momentum** not, understands **it**: “how much“. That how-much thing is **arbitrary**. That thing will never be completely, in line, with anthropic understandings, unless, humankind has a great stride to make, in unanimity, in a matter of centuries, and millennium and never **10** years.

In gravity like potentials do we ever **gain** energy so that the **time** runs **faster**? Not in gravity, because gravity is always sucking. But in other forms of potential energy its possible that **time** runs **faster**. (that form of potential would be relaxing the clock more and more by supplying energy, like UN can fund your project and un-trap you more)

Also you realize, that, relative locations of a clock in such field of gravity entails **slower** or **faster** clock-response.

The last thing I like to say **is** an equation which **struck** me. Since, by principle of equivalence, gravity-potential and acceleration, act equivalently, on everything, therefore, we **have** an equation.

**dv/dt** = **v**(**2**). (or is there a distance multiplied to LHS?) So, I think, this is a differential equation, and to find its solution I have got 3 books, but haven’t checked them yet. Off to dinner now.

**Adios**.

Categories: basic physics, Ideas, Insights, manmohan dash, Physics, Relativity, Research, Research Article, Thoughts on Science, Time-Dilation